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Table 2: Freshwater Withdrawal by Country and Sector

      Total Freshwater Withdrawal Estimated Year 2000 per capita Withdrawal Domestic Use Industrial Use Agricultural Use Domestic Use Industrial Use Agricultural Use  
Region and Country   Year (km^3/yr) (m^3/p/yr) (%) (%) (%) m3/p/yr m3/p/yr m3/p/yr Source
AFRICA
  Algeria 1990 4.50 142 25 15 60 35 22 85 a
  Angola 1987 0.48 38 14 10 76 5 4 29 a
  Benin 1994 0.15 23 23 10 67 5 2 16 a
  Botswana 1992 0.11 70 32 20 48 22 14 33 a
  Burkina Faso 1992 0.38 31 19 0 81 6 0 25 a
  Burundi 1987 0.10 14 36 0 64 5 0 9 a
  Cameroon 1987 0.40 26 46 19 35 12 5 9 a
  Cape Verde 1990 0.03 59 10 19 88 6 11 51 a
  Central African Republic 1987 0.07 19 21 5 74 4 1 14 a
  Chad 1987 0.18 25 16 2 82 4 0 20 a
  Comoros 1987 0.01 14 48 5 47 7 1 7 g
  Congo 1987 0.04 13 62 27 11 8 4 1 a
  Congo, Democratic Republic (formerly Zaire) 1990 0.36 7 61 16 23 4 1 2 a
  Cote D'Ivoire 1987 0.71 47 22 11 67 10 5 31 a
  Djibouti 1973 0.01 11 28 21 51 3 2 6 a
  Egypt 1993 55.10 809 6 8 86 49 65 696 b
  Equatorial Guinea 1987 0.01 22 81 13 6 18 3 1 a
  Ethiopia (and Eritrea) 1987 2.20 31 11 3 86 3 1 27 a
  Gabon 1987 0.06 49 72 22 6 35 11 3 a
  Gambia 1982 0.02 16 7 2 91 1 0 15 a
  Ghana 1970 0.30 15 35 13 52 5 2 8 a
  Guinea 1987 0.74 94 10 3 87 9 3 82 a
  Guinea-Bissau 1991 0.02 14 60 4 36 8 1 5 a
  Kenya 1990 2.05 68 20 4 76 13 3 52 a
  Lesotho 1987 0.05 22 22 22 56 5 5 12 a
  Liberia 1987 0.13 40 27 13 60 11 5 24 a
  Libya 1994 4.60 720 11 2 87 78 16 626 a
  Madagascar 1984 16.30 937 1 0 99 9 0 928 a
  Malawi 1994 0.94 85 10 3 86 9 3 74 a
  Mali 1987 1.36 108 2 1 97 2 1 105 a
  Mauritania 1985 1.63 632 6 2 92 39 11 581 a
  Mauritius 1974 0.36 305 16 7 77 50 21 235 a
  Morocco 1991 11.05 381 5 3 92 19 11 351 a
  Mozambique 1992 0.61 31 9 2 89 3 1 28 a
  Namibia 1991 0.249 144 29 3 68 41 5 98 a
  Niger 1988 0.50 46 16 2 82 7 1 38 a
  Nigeria 1987 3.63 28 31 15 54 9 4 15 a
  Rwanda 1993 0.77 100 5 2 94 5 2 94 a
  Senegal 1987 1.36 143 5 3 92 7 4 132 a
  Sierra Leone 1987 0.37 76 7 4 89 5 3 68 a
  Somalia 1987 0.81 70 3 0 97 2 0 68 a
  South Africa 1990 13.31 288 17 11 72 49 31 207 a
  Sudan 1995 17.80 597 4 1 94 27 7 563 a
  Swaziland 1980 0.66 667 2 2 96 11 16 640 a
  Tanzania 1994 1.17 35 9 2 89 3 1 31 a
  Togo 1987 0.09 19 62 13 26 12 3 5 a
  Tunisia 1990 3.08 313 9 3 89 27 9 277 a
  Uganda 1970 0.20 9 32 8 60 3 1 5 a
  Zambia 1994 1.71 187 16 7 77 30 13 144 a
  Zimbabwe 1987 1.22 98 14 7 79 14 7 78 a
                       
NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
  Barbados 1960 0.03 115 52 41 7 60 47 8 g
  Belize 1987 0.02 83 10 0 90 8 0 75 c
  Canada 1990 43.89 1,431 11 80 8 157 1144 114 f
  Costa Rica 1970 1.35 355 4 7 89 14 25 316 c
  Cuba 1975 8.10 723 9 2 89 65 14 644 c
  Dominican Republic 1987 2.97 350 5 6 89 17 21 311 c
  El Salvador 1975 1.00 158 7 4 89 11 6 141 c
  Guatemala 1970 0.73 60 9 17 74 5 10 44 c
  Haiti 1987 0.04 5 24 8 68 1 0 3 c
  Honduras 1992 1.52 234 4 5 91 9 12 213 c
  Jamaica 1990 0.32 124 7 7 86 9 9 106 c
  Mexico 1991 77.62 785 6 8 86 47 63 675 c
  Nicaragua 1975 0.89 190 25 21 54 47 40 102 c
  Panama 1975 1.30 455 12 11 77 55 50 350 c
  Trinidad and Tobago 1975 0.15 112 27 38 35 30 43 39 c
  United States of America 1995 469.00 1,688 12 46 42 203 777 709 e
                       
SOUTH AMERICA                      
  Argentina 1976 27.60 745 9 18 73 67 134 544 c
  Bolivia 1987 1.24 149 10 5 85 15 7 127 c
  Brazil 1990 36.47 216 43 17 40 93 37 86 c
  Chile 1975 16.80 1,104 6 5 89 66 55 983 c
  Colombia 1987 5.34 137 41 16 43 56 22 59 c
  Ecuador 1987 5.56 440 7 3 90 31 13 396 c
  Guyana 1992 1.46 1,670 1 0 99 17 0 1654 c
  Paraguay 1987 0.43 78 15 7 78 12 5 61 c
  Peru 1987 6.10 238 19 9 72 45 21 171 c
  Suriname 1987 0.46 1,018 6 5 89 61 51 906 c
  Uruguay 1965 0.65 199 6 3 91 12 6 181 c
  Venezuela 1970 4.10 170 43 11 46 73 19 78 c
                       
                       
ASIA
  Afghanistan 1991 26.11 1,020 1 0 99 10 0 1010 b
  Bahrain 1991 0.24 387 39 4 56 151 15 217 b
  Bangladesh 1987 22.50 175 3 1 96 5 2 168 c
  Bhutan 1987 0.02 10 36 10 54 4 1 5 c
  Cambodia 1987 0.52 46 5 1 94 2 0 44 c
  China 1980 460.00 360 6 7 87 22 25 314 c
  Cyprus 1993 0.21 267 7 2 91 19 5 243 b
  India 1975 380.00 377 3 4 93 11 15 351 c
  Indonesia 1987 16.59 78 13 11 76 10 9 59 c
  Iran 1993 70.03 916 6 2 92 55 18 843 b
  Iraq 1990 42.80 1,852 3 5 92 56 93 1704 b
  Israel 1990 1.70 280 16 5 79 45 14 221 c
  Japan 1990 90.80 718 17 33 50 122 237 359 f
  Jordan 1993 0.98 155 22 3 75 34 5 117 b
  Korea Democratic People's Republic 1987 14.16 592 11 16 73 65 95 432 c
  Korea Rep 1992 27.60 589 11 14 75 65 82 442 c
  Kuwait 1994 0.54 274 37 2 60 101 5 164 b
  Laos 1987 0.99 174 8 10 82 14 17 143 c
  Lebanon 1994 1.29 393 28 4 68 110 16 267 b
  Malaysia 1975 9.42 422 23 30 47 97 127 199 c
  Mongolia 1987 0.55 201 11 27 62 22 54 125 c
  Myanmar 1987 3.96 80 7 3 90 6 2 72 c
  Nepal 1987 2.68 110 4 1 95 4 1 105 c
  Oman 1991 1.22 450 5 2 94 23 9 423 b
  Pakistan 1991 155.60 997 2 2 97 20 20 967 b
  Philippines 1975 29.50 393 18 21 61 71 83 240 c
  Qatar 1994 0.28 476 23 3 74 109 14 352 b
  Saudi Arabia 1992 17.02 786 9 1 90 71 8 707 b
  Singapore 1975 0.19 53 45 51 4 24 27 2 c
  Sri Lanka 1970 6.30 335 2 2 96 7 7 321 c
  Syria 1993 14.41 894 4 2 94 36 18 840 b
  Thailand 1987 31.90 527 4 6 90 21 32 475 c
  Turkey 1992 31.60 481 16 11 72 77 53 346 b
  United Arab Emirates 1995 2.11 863 24 9 67 207 78 578 b
  Vietnam 1992 28.90 359 13 9 78 47 32 280 c
  Yemen 1990 2.93 162 7 1 92 11 2 149 c
EUROPE
  Albania 1970 0.20 57 6 18 76 3 10 44 c
  Austria 1991 2.52 304 19 73 8 58 222 24 f
  Belgium 1990 9.00 877 11 85 4 97 746 35 f
  Bulgaria 1988 13.00 1,565 7 38 55 110 595 861 c
  Czech Republic 1991 2.74 269 23 68 9 62 183 24 c
  Denmark 1990 1.20 228 30 27 43 68 61 98 f
  Finland 1994 2.43 469 12 85 3 56 399 14 f
  France 1994 34.88 591 16 69 15 94 407 89 f
  Germany 1990 58.85 712 14 68 18 100 484 128 f
  Greece 1990 6.00 566 8 29 63 45 164 357 f
  Hungary 1991 6.81 694 9 55 36 62 382 250 c
  Iceland 1994 0.16 567 31 63 6 176 357 34 f
  Ireland 1990 1.20 336 16 74 10 54 248 34 f
  Italy 1990 56.20 983 14 27 59 138 265 580 f
  Luxembourg 1994 0.06 133 42 45 13 56 60 17 f
  Malta 1995 0.06 147 87 1 12 128 1 18 b
  Netherlands 1991 7.80 491 5 61 34 25 300 167 f
  Norway 1985 2.03 461 20 72 8 92 332 37 f
  Poland 1991 12.28 317 16 60 24 51 190 76 f
  Portugal 1990 7.29 745 15 37 48 112 276 357 f
  Romania 1994 26.00 1,155 8 33 59 92 381 682 c
  Slovakia 1991 1.78 331              
  Spain 1994 33.30 837 12 26 62 100 218 519 f
  Sweden 1994 2.96 333 36 55 9 120 183 30 f
  Switzerland 1994 2.60 351 23 73 4 81 256 14 f
  United Kingdom 1994 11.75 201 20 77 3 40 155 6 f
  Yugoslavia*** 1980 8.77 368 16 72 12 59 265 44 c
FORMER SOVIET UNION
  Armenia 1994 2.93 800 30 4 66 240 32 528 d
  Azerbaijan 1995 16.53 2,112 5 25 70 106 528 1478 d
  Belarus 1990 2.73 265 22 43 35 58 114 93 d
  Estonia 1995 0.16 113 56 39 5 63 44 6 d
  Georgia 1990 3.47 640 21 20 59 134 128 378 d
  Kazakhstan 1993 33.67 1,989 2 17 81 40 338 1611 d
  Kyrgyz Republic 1994 10.09 2,221 3 3 94 67 67 2088 d
  Latvia 1994 0.29 121 55 32 13 67 39 16 d
  Lithuania 1995 0.25 68 81 16 3 55 11 2 d
  Moldova 1992 2.96 664 9 65 26 60 432 173 d
  Russian Federation 1994 77.10 527 19 62 20 100 327 105 d
  Tajikistan 1994 11.87 1,855 3 4 92 56 74 1707 d
  Turkmenistan 1994 23.78 5,309 1 1 98 53 53 5203 d
  Ukraine 1992 25.99 512 18 52 30 92 266 153 d
  Uzbekistan 1994 58.05 2,320 4 2 94 93 46 2181 d
OCEANIA
  Australia 1985 14.80 786 65 2 33 511 16 259 c
  Fiji 1987 0.03 35 20 20 60 7 7 21 c
  New Zealand 1991 2.00 532 46 10 44 245 53 234 c
  Papua New Guinea 1987 0.10 21 29 22 49 6 5 10 c
  Solomon Islands 1987 nd nd 40 20 40 0 0 0 c

Table 2. Freshwater Withdrawal by Country and Sector

Description

The use of water varies greatly from country to country and from region to region. Data on water use by regions and by different economic sectors are among the most sought after in the water resources area. Ironically, these data are often the least reliable and most inconsistent of all water-resources information. The following table presents the most up-to-date data on total freshwater withdrawals by country in cubic kilometers per year and estimated year 2000 water use in cubic meters per person per year, using UN medium national population estimates for the year 2000. The table also gives the breakdown of that water use by the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors, in both percent of total water use and million cubic meters per year.

"Withdrawal" refers to water taken from a water source for use. It does not refer to water "consumed" in that use. The domestic sector typically includes household and municipal uses as well as commercial and governmental water use. The industrial sector includes water used for power plant cooling and industrial production. The agricultural sector includes water for irrigation and livestock.

Limitations

Extreme care should be used when applying these data. They come from a wide variety of sources and are collected using a wide variety of approaches, with few formal standards. As a result, this table includes data that are actually measured, are estimated, are modeled using different assumptions, or are derived from other data. The water-use data also come from many different years, making direct intercomparisons difficult. For example, some water-use data are over twenty years old. Data are included for the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Data are also reported for the combined Yugoslavia before its breakup. Another major limitation of these data is that they do not include the use of rainfall in agriculture. Many countries use a significant fraction of the rain falling on their territory for agricultural production, but this water use is neither accurately measured nor reported in this set. In the past several years, the Food and Agricultural Organization has begun a systematic reassessment of water-use data, and there is reason to hope that over the next several years a more accurate picture of global and regional water use will emerge.

Sources

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1995, "Water Resources of African Countries", Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome.
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997, Water Resources of the Near East Region: A Review, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome.
  3. World Resources Institute, 1994 and 1998, World Resources 1994-95/1998-1999, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme, Oxford University Press, New York.
  4. Estimates from Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997, Irrigation in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union in Figures. Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome.
  5. United States Geological Survey, 1998, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995, U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS Circular 1200, Denver, Colorado.
  6. Eurostat Yearbook. 1997. Statistics of the European Union. EC/C/6/Ser.26GT, Luxembourg.
  7. World Resources Institute, 1990, World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York.
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